The three primary categories of electrodes—cellulose, rutile, and basic (low-hydrogen)—obtain their name from the coating type. Electrode coatings help optimise performance for various applications by influencing how quickly the slag freezes; penetration (deep, medium, or mild); and deposition rate. The coating also contributes to good arc initiation, easy restrikes, puddle control, and a stable arc with minimal spatter.
Rutile. Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide. Rutile electrodes such as E6013 and E7014 class stainless steel electrodes offer a soft arc with lighter penetration than cellulosic electrodes. The slag is easily controlled, and the arc ignites and restrikes easily, offering greater welder appeal. They typically are used in general fabrication applications where mechanical properties for critical weldments are not required.